Week 4–Israel’s Golden Age, Psalms and Wisdom Literature

David with the Head of Goliath

Caravaggio (1610)

During the golden age of Israel, a king was on the throne that had a heart after God. His name was David.

David not only represents the golden age of Israel, he was a true hero and man of faith. But he was also one of the greatest poets ever. The Psalms are the most famous poems ever written, more important than Shakespeare’s sonnets.

This Week’s Assignments


Monday–King David

(Today will be a heavier day of work because you have an hour long Bible study to listen to, you may want to listen to the Bible Study over the weekend)

  • Listen to the Study called “2 Samuel 1-7” and take notes.
  • ReadNo Confidence in the Flesh” by David Wilkerson
  • Read Psalms 119, 91, 51, 63, 18 and 118 (You can spread Psalm 119 out through the week if you need to, but at least read the 5 smaller ones today)
  • Read “Major Characteristics of Hebrew Poetry: Parallelism” and “Psalms:Worship Through Poetry” (scroll down)
  • Before you read the Psalms this week I want to remind you that these poems were actually meant to be sung out loud. They were songs. Many of them even identify specific instrumental accompaniments. We don’t sing them anymore, except many of our worship songs contain lines from the Psalms, and lift our spirits as we worship.Here is a short video of a woman singing Psalm 23 in Hebrew.

  • Watch the video below– My best friend had chemo, and it didn’t work. We were devastated. I was so so discouraged. God gave me this song. I want you to listen to it.

Tuesday–Decent into Idolatry, Ahab and Jezebel, and Elijah

  • Read–1 Kings Chapter 18-19 and Proverbs 16
  • Read David Wilkerson’s Devotion on Elijah and Ahab “He Will Act For You
  • Read David Wilkerson’s study “Don’t Run From Jezebel” —Write your favorite truth in the comment section!!!
  • EXTRA CREDIT OPPORTUNITY—Watch Bible Study on YouTube — A.W. Tozer–Men Who Met God, Elijah (leave a comment below, about what spoke to you) (30 points)

Wednesday–Hezekiah to the Captivity

  • Read Chapter One of God’s and Kings  and answer the questions on the packet. Look at question 2, 3 and 4 as if they were like journal questions. Take the time to think about those questions deeply and give me a good paragraph size response (email them to me by Thursday at 10 pm). Hezekiah became king and he LOVED God. But his son Manasseh did evil in the eyes of the Lord.
  • Listen to the first half of Pastor Chuck Smith teach about Daniels chapter 5-8—Daniel Chapters 5-8

Because of their continued idolatry, the Lord would soon bring the Assyrians and Babylonians to come invade Israel and eventually Jerusalem, and carry them off as captive slaves to pagan lands. Daniel was a young man when this happened. And he served in the Babylonian court as a prophet in the midst of magicians and psychics.

Thursday–Deliverance From Babylonian Captivity to Messiah ❤

  • Prophecies about Messiah–The Old Testament is overflowing with prophecies about the first and second coming of Jesus Christ. As you read last week, there are literally hundreds of fulfilled prophesies that we can look at in the Old Testament. I want you to scroll down to the bottom of the page and read some important information about Messianic Prophesies.
  • Prophecy about Cyrus–Scroll down and read the information about what Isaiah said about Cyrus.
  • Read the handouts with the titles “October 12” and “March 12”
  • Listen to the second half of Pastor Chuck Smith teach about Daniels chapter 5-8—Daniel Chapters 5-8


Thinking and Assignments–


Continue working on your Myth/Epic. Begin writing a rough draft.

I am not assigning “journals” this week, but go ahead and approach question 2, 3, and 4 on your “God’s and Kings” handout as if they were journal questions. Think about each question deeply and write me a full paragraph response to each one.


  1. According to the teaching by Chuck Smith, what do the Amelikites symbolize? And what is the judgment against them teach us about what we need to do in our own lives?
  2. Was there a lesson you learned about what NOT to name your children? What is a bad name that you heard from the study in 2 Samuel?
  3. What is your favorite Psalm from the list of reading this week and why?
  4. What was the most encouraging verse you read?
  5. What Proverb you read that you felt was something you needed to hear?
  6. Why do you think the Psalmist uses repetition?
  7. Psalm 118 is what is called a “Song of Ascent”–It is one of the Psalms the Jews would sing as they traveled uphill to Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover each year. Jesus sang this Psalm with His disciples before He died for them. Find the prophetic verse in this Psalm that shows that Jesus sang about His own sacrificial death. What verse is it? What do you think of that? Trip out! 🙂
  8. Do the kings of Israel obey God or disobey God?
  9. Name a few kings that you studied this week that disobeyed God.
  10. Name the kings that you studied this week that obeyed God.
  11. What did the kings of Israel do that provoked God to anger, eventually leading the Lord to bring Babylon to drag them into captivity?
  12. Name some prophets that God used during this time, proving that He kept His hands on Israel?
  13. What is special about Isaiah 44’s discussion about Cyrus?
  14. Read Psalm 22 and list as many prophesies about Jesus that you can see 😀
  15. What is your favorite worship song?

All assignments are due Friday

(image from google)

Michelangelo’s famous David sculpture (1504)

Note from Mrs. Brandi, this sculpture of David is one of my all time favorite sculptures. It is so beautiful and it looks so real. Look at his throat. It is insane! “You go — Michelangelo!”

The article below, describes the use of parallelism and repetition in the Psalms.

Major Characteristics of Hebrew Poetry: Parallelism

Parallelism is the foundation of Hebrew poetry and registers most obviously to the English reader as a balanced repetition:

The earth is the Lord‘s, and everything in it,

the world, and all who live in it;

for he founded it upon the seas

and established it upon the waters. 24:1-2

The symmetrical arrangement of parallel lines of about the same length (called “cola” or “stichs”) in which meaning, grammar, syntax, form, and stress balance and reinforce one another constitute parallelism. The cadence of the Psalms even in translation rises in the main from these overlapping parallelisms-semantic, syntactic, morphological, prosodic. Usually two parallel lines appear together, forming a “bicolon” or a “dystich:”

Who may ascend the hill of the Lord?

Who may stand in his holy place? 24:3

Less frequently three lines comprise a “tricolon” or a “tristich:”

He who has clean hands and a pure heart,

who does not lift up his soul to an idol

or swear by what is false. 24:4

Types of parallelism emerge from the common patterns of meaning sustained between these parallel lines. Synonymous parallelism describes bicola or tricola in which the same or similar thoughts are repeated:

Therefore the wicked will not stand in the judgment,

nor sinners in the assembly of the righteous. 1:5

Antithetic parallelism describes couplets or triplets with contrasting thoughts:

For the Lord watches over the way of the righteous,

but the way of the wicked will perish. 1:6

In synthetic parallelism the second or third lines of the unit are not synonymous or antithetic to the first line but advance the thought in a variety of other ways. For example, one of the lines may give a comparison to illuminate the other. This is emblematic parallelism:

As a father has compassion on his children,

so the Lord has compassion on those who fear him. 103:13

Other lines of synthetic parallelism relate by reason or result, as in 34:9:

Fear the Lord, you his saints,

for those who fear him lack nothing.

Many lines of synthetic parallelism simply advance or complete the thought without recourse to any of the semantic ties noted above, as, for example, in 23:6:

Surely goodness and love will follow me

all the days of my life,

and I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever.

Climactic parallelism designates a highly repetitive, slowly advancing set of lines such as in 29:1-2:

Ascribe to the Lord, O mighty ones,

ascribe to the Lord glory and strength.

Ascribe to the Lord the glory due his name;

worship the Lord in the splendor of his holiness.



The article below is taken from a secular, public school textbook. I used to teach this stuff in the public schools! Cool huh 🙂 It discusses the use of parallelism and repetition, but it also mentions the use of metaphor and simile.

Psalms: Worship Through Poetry

The Bible is full of poetry. Every book of it contains poems or fragments of poems inserted into the prose text, and much of the prose itself is highly rhythmical. One book, the Psalms, consists entirely of poems, some of which were set to music and sung during worship services in the ancient temple in Jerusalem. The book of Psalms preserves 150 of these songs, a fraction of the total number that the ancient Hebrews knew and sang. Psalms were used as hymnals and included songs appropriate for many types of worship: thanksgiving, lament, praise, and devotion. Modern scholars now agree that the psalms were written by many authors over many centuries, but seventy-three of the psalms are said to be “for David” or “concerning David,” the heroic Hebrew king.

In English, a collection of psalms is called a psalter (the p is silent as in the word psalm itself). (In Hebrew, the name for the collection is Tehillim, or “songs of praise.”) There have been dozens of English psalters besides the one in the King James Bible, but none of them has lasted so well and so long. King James’s translators did not try to impose rhyme on their versions because there is no rhyme in the originals. Instead, they imitated such Hebrew poetic devices as repetition and parallel structure (the use of sentences or phrases similar in structure):

Let the floods clap their hands,
Let the hills be joyful together.

—Psalm 98:8

The psalmists were fond of saying essentially the same thing twice, in different words (“thy rod and thy staff” in Psalm 23). The King James Bible uses the numbering of the ancient Hebrew manuscripts; some other Bibles use a different numbering derived from a Greek translation of the Hebrew, and these Bibles have an extra psalm, number 151.

Biblical poetry, then, is much like modern free verse in that it does not have rhyme and meter but it does have other patterns of repetition, balance, antithesis, and parallelism. Metaphors and similes abound, and so do images drawn from nature and everyday experience:

My God, in him will I trust.
Surely he shall deliver thee from the snare of the fowler,
And from the noisome pestilence.
He shall cover thee with his feathers,
And under his wings shalt thou trust:
His truth shall be thy shield and buckler.
Thou shalt not be afraid for the terror by night;
Nor for the arrow that flieth by day;
Nor for the pestilence that walketh in darkness;
Nor for the destruction that wasteth at noonday.

—Psalm 91:2–6

(Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Elements of Literature, 6th Edition. Nexuslearning.net)

Prophesies about the Messiah

The books of the Old Testament contain many passages about the Messiah—all prophecies Jesus Christ fulfilled. For instance, the crucifixion of Jesus was foretold in Psalm 22:16-18 approximately 1,000 years before Christ was born, long before this method of execution was even practiced.

Some Bible scholars suggest there are more than 300 prophetic Scriptures completed in the life of Jesus.

Although this list is not exhaustive, you’ll find 44 messianic predictions clearly fulfilled in Jesus Christ, along with supporting references from the Old and New Testament.

44 Prophecies Jesus Christ Fulfilled
Prophecies About Jesus Old Testament
New Testament
1 Messiah would be born of a woman. Genesis 3:15 Matthew 1:20
Galatians 4:4
2 Messiah would be born in Bethlehem. Micah 5:2 Matthew 2:1
Luke 2:4-6
3 Messiah would be born of a virgin. Isaiah 7:14 Matthew 1:22-23
Luke 1:26-31
4 Messiah would come from the line of Abraham. Genesis 12:3
Genesis 22:18
Matthew 1:1
Romans 9:5
5 Messiah would be a descendant of Isaac. Genesis 17:19
Genesis 21:12
Luke 3:34
6 Messiah would be a descendant of Jacob. Numbers 24:17 Matthew 1:2
7 Messiah would come from the tribe of Judah. Genesis 49:10 Luke 3:33
Hebrews 7:14
8 Messiah would be heir to King David‘s throne. 2 Samuel 7:12-13
Isaiah 9:7
Luke 1:32-33
Romans 1:3
9 Messiah’s throne will be anointed and eternal. Psalm 45:6-7
Daniel 2:44
Luke 1:33
Hebrews 1:8-12
10 Messiah would be called Immanuel. Isaiah 7:14 Matthew 1:23
11 Messiah would spend a season in Egypt. Hosea 11:1 Matthew 2:14-15
12 A massacre of children would happen at Messiah’s birthplace. Jeremiah 31:15 Matthew 2:16-18
13 A messenger would prepare the way for Messiah Isaiah 40:3-5 Luke 3:3-6
14 Messiah would be rejected by his own people. Psalm 69:8
Isaiah 53:3
John 1:11
John 7:5
15 Messiah would be a prophet. Deuteronomy 18:15 Acts 3:20-22
16 Messiah would be preceded by Elijah. Malachi 4:5-6 Matthew 11:13-14
17 Messiah would be declared the Son of God. Psalm 2:7 Matthew 3:16-17
18 Messiah would be called a Nazarene. Isaiah 11:1 Matthew 2:23
19 Messiah would bring light to Galilee. Isaiah 9:1-2 Matthew 4:13-16
20 Messiah would speak in parables. Psalm 78:2-4
Isaiah 6:9-10
Matthew 13:10-15, 34-35
21 Messiah would be sent to heal the brokenhearted. Isaiah 61:1-2 Luke 4:18-19
22 Messiah would be a priest after the order of Melchizedek. Psalm 110:4 Hebrews 5:5-6
23 Messiah would be called King. Psalm 2:6
Zechariah 9:9
Matthew 27:37
Mark 11:7-11
24 Messiah would be praised by little children. Psalm 8:2 Matthew 21:16
25 Messiah would be betrayed. Psalm 41:9
Zechariah 11:12-13
Luke 22:47-48
Matthew 26:14-16
26 Messiah’s price money would be used to buy a potter’s field. Zechariah 11:12-13 Matthew 27:9-10
27 Messiah would be falsely accused. Psalm 35:11 Mark 14:57-58
28 Messiah would be silent before his accusers. Isaiah 53:7 Mark 15:4-5
29 Messiah would be spat upon and struck. Isaiah 50:6 Matthew 26:67
30 Messiah would be hated without cause. Psalm 35:19
Psalm 69:4
John 15:24-25
31 Messiah would be crucified with criminals. Isaiah 53:12 Matthew 27:38
Mark 15:27-28
32 Messiah would be given vinegar to drink. Psalm 69:21 Matthew 27:34
John 19:28-30
33 Messiah’s hands and feet would be pierced. Psalm 22:16
Zechariah 12:10
John 20:25-27
34 Messiah would be mocked and ridiculed. Psalm 22:7-8 Luke 23:35
35 Soldiers would gamble for Messiah’s garments. Psalm 22:18 Luke 23:34
Matthew 27:35-36
36 Messiah’s bones would not be broken. Exodus 12:46
Psalm 34:20
John 19:33-36
37 Messiah would be forsaken by God. Psalm 22:1 Matthew 27:46
38 Messiah would pray for his enemies. Psalm 109:4 Luke 23:34
39 Soldiers would pierce Messiah’s side. Zechariah 12:10 John 19:34
40 Messiah would be buried with the rich. Isaiah 53:9 Matthew 27:57-60
41 Messiah would resurrect from the dead. Psalm 16:10
Psalm 49:15
Matthew 28:2-7
Acts 2:22-32
42 Messiah would ascend to heaven. Psalm 24:7-10 Mark 16:19
Luke 24:51
43 Messiah would be seated at God’s right hand. Psalm 68:18
Psalm 110:1
Mark 16:19
Matthew 22:44
44 Messiah would be a sacrifice for sin. Isaiah 53:5-12 Romans 5:6-8

(Sources: 100 Prophecies Fulfilled by Jesus: Messianic Prophecies Made Before the Birth of Christby Rose Publishing; Book of Bible Lists by H.L. Willmington; NKJV Study Bible; Life Application Study Bible.)

Isn’t this amazing? The Bible is not just any ordinary ancient text. It is real. It is living. It is true. It can predict the end from the beginning. This is why we can trust the Bible when it tells us that Jesus will return, just as he ascended. He will come back and He will pour out His wrath on wickedness. He will rescue us from this world and we will live with Him forever.

Prophesies about Cyrus

Now I read the One Year Bible every year, and I trip out on this every year. I just tripped out on it a few weeks back. Check it out:

Cyrus is a king mentioned more than 30 times in the Bible and is identified as Cyrus the Great (also Cyrus II or Cyrus the Elder) who reigned over Persia between 539—530 BC. This pagan king is important in Jewish history because it was under his rule that Jews were first allowed to return to Israel after 70 years of captivity.

In one of the most amazing prophecies of the Bible, Isaiah predicts Cyrus’ decree to free the Jews. One hundred fifty years before Cyrus lived, the prophet calls him by name and gives details of Cyrus’ benevolence to the Jews: “This is what the Lord says to his anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I take hold of to subdue nations before him . . . ‘I summon you by name and bestow on you a title of honor, though you do not acknowledge me’” (Isaiah 45:1, 4; see also 41:2-25; 42:6). Evincing His sovereignty over all nations, God says of Cyrus, “He is my shepherd and will accomplish all that I please” (Isaiah 44:28).

Cyrus’s decree releasing the Jewish people, in fulfillment of prophecy, is recorded in 2 Chronicles 36:22–23: “Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah might be fulfilled, the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, so that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom and also put it in writing: ‘Thus says Cyrus king of Persia, “The LORD, the God of heaven, has given me all the kingdoms of the earth, and he has charged me to build him a house at Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Whoever is among you of all his people, may the LORD his God be with him. Let him go up.”’” Other Old Testament books that mention Cyrus include Ezra and Daniel.

King Cyrus actively assisted the Jews in rebuilding the temple in Jerusalem under Ezra and Zerubbabel. Cyrus restored the temple treasures to Jerusalem and allowed building expenses to be paid from the royal treasury (Ezra 1:4–11; 6:4–5). Cyrus’s beneficence helped to restart the temple worship practices that had languished during the 70 years of the Jews’ captivity. Some commentators point to Cyrus’s decree to rebuild Jerusalem as the official beginning of Judaism.

Among the Jews deported from Judah and later placed under the rule of Cyrus include the prophet Daniel. In fact, we are told Daniel served until at least the third year of King Cyrus, approximately 536 BC (Daniel 10:1). That being the case, Daniel likely had some personal involvement in the decree that was made in support of the Jews. The historian Josephus says that Cyrus was informed of the biblical prophecies written about him (Antiquities of the Jews, XI.1.2). The natural person to have shown Cyrus the scrolls was Daniel, a high-ranking official in Persia (Daniel 6:28).

Besides his dealings with the Jews, Cyrus is known for his advancement of human rights, his brilliant military strategy, and his bridging of Eastern and Western cultures. He was a king of tremendous influence and a person God used to help fulfill an important Old Testament prophecy. God’s use of Cyrus as a “shepherd” for His people illustrates the truth of Proverbs 21:1, “The king’s heart is in the hand of the LORD; he directs it like a watercourse wherever he pleases.”

Can you imagine being Cyrus and entering Babylon at night, after conquering it. I imagine him meeting a man named Daniel, who liked to spend time with lions. Can you imagine Daniel tripping out?!?! He knew the Scriptures!!! He had read Isaiah. And here Cyrus comes walking into Babylon. WOW. I bet you that it was Daniel who showed Cyrus what the Bible had to say about him 150 years before Cyrus was even born. I LOVE THE BIBLE!!!!! 

So now, after 70 years of captivity in Babylon, the Lord brought His people the man who would not only support their journey back to Jerusalem, but finance it!!! Praise the Lord!!!!

***Gilgamesh Update***

20 New Lines Discovered

Listen to the Epic of Gilgamesh in Ancient Akkadian


20 thoughts on “Week 4–Israel’s Golden Age, Psalms and Wisdom Literature

  1. My favorite truth in “Don’t Run From Jezebel” is #2 taking back control requires dealing with the Lords still,small voice.

  2. Beloved, this is the whole issue, the whole problem: We’re tired of learning God’s ways! We think, “Is there never a time when I can sit back and know the devil is defeated? Won’t my battles ever end?” No – God has a different plan! And it is this: “When you learn how to resist the devil, he will flee from you!”

    This quote is true, I feel the same way sometimes. I just wish that the battles against sin would end, especially after all the little victories, but it’s not just about winning a little victory every now and then, “When you learn how to resist the devil, he will flee from you!”

  3. “Don’t run from Jezebel” –

    My favorite truth was like that little voice of the Lord when you fall can change you back.

    (Extra credit) –
    The thing that impacted me the most was from 27:56-28:22, because it’s true. When we’re really civilized, that would happen

  4. My favorite truth from “Don’t run from Jezebel!” was number two because it’s true we need to deal with trials and temptations to know who our enemy is so we can fight back and stand firm. In the end the Lord will always deal with the devil and He will remain with us if we remain in Him and even when we don’t.

  5. Extra Credit-
    The thing that impacted me the most was when Tozier was explaining how Ahab wanted to convert Jezebel, but it rarely it works. Instead of Ahab bringing Jezebel up with him, she brought him down to her level.

  6. Extra Credit ❤ I liked the story of how his son followed the parade and whent they left him he was lost and he used it to compare how the people were following everything Jezebel ( who just represented the world) did and eventually when all the banging drums and flashy lights go away they would be left with nothing. It reminded me a lot of the Kardashians.

  7. Extra credit:
    “But it’s that passage that says that He was the light that lighteth every man that cometh into the world. Now you’ll mark it, my friends, the even a man who was never heard of the Bible, God, nor the gospel, nor anything having to do with revealed religion, yet has more light than you imagine he has, for he has been in some major illuminated by the light that lighteth every man that cometh into the world.” (I apologize if I typed this wrong, I typed it just as I heard it)

    I find it interesting that even a man, who has never heard of the Bible, and has never been taught about God, in some way has light in himself, which is given to him from God. That’s just what I thought was interesting

    What spoke to me is when he talked about the death of Carl Chestman. He talked about how this man was put to death, and that everybody mourned, and was sad, and everything felt gloomy and depressing to people over this man’s death, but when he talked about how nobody wept over the woman who was raped, and other troubles. It spoke to me because I’m almost the same way. I could cry over anything of importance to me, but I could ignore any trouble that I read about, or learn about, that devastates other people. It helps me to realize how ignorant people, including me can be. We can get so caught up in our own little world, and completely forget about other people. I feel like my heart is hardened to those kinds of things, and I don’t want it to be, so this really helped me to realize what it is that I need to work on. It reminds me of Jesus. He wept for people. He asked for forgiveness on the people who tormented Him, because he loved them.

  8. Extra Credit: The thing that spoke to me the most was the story of how the boy followed the parade and got lost. It sends the message that you shouldn’t just blindly follow what the world is following.

  9. I liked how in A.W.Tozer’s study, he mentioned how Ahab was brought down by Jezebel. As a result she rose up and became the “leader”. In my mind, I just heard the names: Nimrod and Semiramis. Nimrod would have probably been different if Semiramis wouldnt have been there, but not by much. Same goes for Ahab… If Jezebel wouldnt have been there, things maybe wouldve been different, but not by much. It just goes to show how just a little yeast leavens the whole lump.

  10. I also found a song to go along with my extra credit. It’s pretty funny because I heard this song over the radio on my way home from Arizona today, and it explains just how I needed to change. It’s “Give me your eyes” by Brandon Heath.

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